|To indicate sequence or order|
first, second etc.
|at this point||followed by|
|next, last, finally||previously, subsequently||after that|
|first of all||and then||nest, before, after|
|concurrently||at this time||meanwhile|
|To introduce an example|
|for example||for instance||e in this case|
|on this occasion||to illustrate||to demonstrate|
|this can be seen||when/where . . .||take the case of|
|To indicate time|
|at that time||before, after|
|To logically divide an idea|
|firstly, secondly, thirdly||Initially, subsequently, ultimately||first, next, finally|
|in a different way/sense||similarly||likewise|
|whereas||balanced against||by comparison|
|similar to||like, just like||conversely|
|in contrast||on the other hand||balanced against|
|however||on the contrary||unlike|
|a different view is||differing from|
|To introduce an additional idea|
|moreover||furthermore||one can also say|
|To introduce an opposite idea or show exception|
|on the other hand||instead|
|whereas||while||in spite of|
|despite||even though||but one could also say . . .|
|To give an example|
|for example||in this case||take the case of|
|to illustrate||for instance||to demonstrate|
|To summarise or conclude|
|in summary||in conclusion||in brief|
|as a result||on the whole||summing up|
|consequently||thus||in other words|
|to conclude||to summarise||finally|
Recipients scan the subject line in order to decide whether to open, forward, file, or trash a message. Remember -- your message is not the only one in your recipient's mailbox.
Often recipients only read partway through a long message, hit "reply" as soon as they have something to contribute, and forget to keep reading. This is part of human nature.
Use standard capitalization and spelling, especially when your message asks your recipient to do work for you.
Skip lines between paragraphs.
When contacting someone cold, always include your name, occupation, and any other important identification information in the first few sentences.
If you are asking someone else to do work for you, take the time to make your message look professional .
While your spell checker won't catch every mistake, at the very least it will catch a few typos. If you are sending a message that will be read by someone higher up on the chain of command (a superior or professor, for instance), or if you're about to mass-mail dozens or thousands of people, take an extra minute or two before you hit "send". Show a draft to a close associate, in order to see whether it actually makes sense.
When you are writing to a friend or a close colleague, it is OK to use "smilies" :-) , abbreviations (IIRC for "if I recall correctly", LOL for "laughing out loud," etc.) and nonstandard punctuation and spelling (like that found in instant messaging or chat rooms). These linguistic shortcuts are generally signs of friendly intimacy, like sharing cold pizza with a family friend. If you tried to share that same cold pizza with a first date, or a visiting dignitary, you would give off the impression that you did not really care about the meeting. By the same token, don't use informal language when your reader expects a more formal approach. Always know the situation, and write accordingly.